A RECOMMENDED SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS COMPETENCY CONTINUUM

FOR

GRADES K-8

PROCESSES OF SCIENCE:

                COMPETENCY INDICATOR:

                Each indicator is one of many behavioral examples which may be used to assess student competency. Others may be used to fit students' needs.

1. OBSERVING

                The student will :

                a. observe objects or events in a variety of ways using one or more of the senses.
                b. identify properties of an object, i.e., shape, color, size, and texture.

                c. use indirect methods, i.e., hand lenses, microscopes, thermometers, to observe objects and events.

                d. observe objects or events by counting, comparing, estimating, and measuring.


2. CLASSIFYING

                a. identify properties useful for classifying objects
                b. group objects by their properties or similarities and differences.

                c. construct and use classification systems.


3. INFERRING

                a. suggest explanations for events based on observations.
                b. distinguish between an observation and an inference.


4. PREDICTING

                a. forecast a future event based on prior experience, i.e., observations, inferences, or experiments.


5. MEASURING

                a. compare and order objects by length, area, weight, volume, etc.
                b. measure properties of objects or events by using standardized units of measure.
                c. measure volume, mass, weight, temperature, area, length, and time, using appropriate units and appropriate measuring instruments.


6. COMMUNICATING

                a. construct and use written reports, diagrams, graphs, or charts to transmit information learned from science experiences.
                b. verbally ask questions about , discuss, explain, or report observations.
                c. after an investigation, report the question tested, the experimental design used, results, and conclusions drawn, using tables and graphs where appropriate.


7. USING SPACE/TIME RELATIONS

                a. describe an object's position i.e., above, below, beside, etc., in relation to other objects.
                b. describe the motion, direction, spatial arrangement, symmetry, and shape of an object compared to another object.


8. DEFINING OPERATIONALLY

                a. state definitions of objects or events in terms of what the object is doing or what is occurring in the event.
                b. state definitions of objects or events based on observable characteristics.


9. FORMULATING HYPOTHESES

                a. identify questions or statements which can and cannot be tested.
                b. design statements, i.e., questions, inferences, predictions, which can be tested by an experiment.


10. EXPERIMENTING

                a. design an investigation to test a hypothesis.
                b. conduct simple experiments.
                c. recognize limitations of methods and tools used in experiments, i.e. experimental error.
                d. utilize safe procedures while conducting investigations.




11. RECOGNIZING VARIABLES

                a. identify the manipulated (independent) variable, responding (dependent) variable, and variables-held-constant in an experiment.

                b. control the variable in an investigation.

12. INTERPRETING DATA

                a. organize and state in his/her own words information derived from a science investigation.
                b. revise interpretations of data based on new information or revised data.


13. FORMULATING MODELS

                a. create a mental, physical, or mental verbal representation of an idea, object, or event.

                b. use models to describe and explain interrelationships of ideas, objects, or events.

This chart, which was revised in 1994, is based on, and used with the permission of the authors of the following source: Mechling, K., Bires, N., Kepler, L., Oliver, D., and Smith, B. (1985) A Recommended Science Competency Continuum for Grades K-6 for Pennsylvania Schools . Harrisburg, PA. Pennsylvania Department of Education